Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Bronchiectasis


    
* Introduction
    
* Etiology
    
* Symptoms
    
* Treatment
    
* Evolution and complications
Bronchiectasis are pathological dilatations of some segments of the bronchial system, in which bronchial secretions abundantly deposited in very difficult expectorant.
Bronchiectasis can be congenital or acquired chronic recurrence of inflammation-consecutive, which destroys the bronchial mucosa. The clinical picture of disease is dominated by strong cough and mucopurulent sputum abundance.
Definition
The term "bronsiectazie" means, etymologically, bronchial dilation (from the Greek word "ektasis" = expansion). These dilatations may be limited area or may spread across multiple lung segments, with specific form, the drum or bag. Bronchial dilation slows the expectoration of bronchial secretion, thus favoring the risk of infection.
By vaccination, antibiotic medication and decline of tuberculosis, severe forms of bronsiectazie have become quite rare. We found a high incidence of the disease especially in people homeless and immigrants. The prevalence of this disease is still high in regions such as Nigeria, Australia, India, Polynesia and Alaska.
Lungs and airways
Lungs made gas exchange between organism and environment. Upper airways act as heating, air purification and dampness of inspired oxygen. Air passes through the nose or mouth through the trachea, main bronchus in two, which is inside the lungs, to the right and left.
The main bronchi branch out into the bronchial tree to the smallest units, bronchioles, which end in alveoli. The pulmonary alveoli gas exchange takes place between inspired air and blood vessels. Capillaries surrounding the alveoli oxygen gives blood to be transported to the erythrocyte, where it will be used by all body cells for energy production. Final products of combustion processes include, among others, carbon dioxide, which will be transported through the circulatory system, back to the alveoli and there expired.
Larger caliber airways are lined with hair cells that produce secretions. If the air we breathe contains harmful substances, they are removed from the bronchial system with cilia, which play the role of travel. In the bronchioles and alveoli, there is another kind of cells, specialized in eliminating pathogens. They secrete a substance-antitrypsin protein-keeping with the role of sterility in the alveoli. In bronsiectazie, this device consists of cilia and mucociliary producing antitrypsin-alveolar cells is destroyed. Subsequently, secretions accumulate and the risk of infection is very high.

    
* Etiology
    
* Symptoms
    
* Treatment
    
* Evolution and complications

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