Thursday, June 23, 2011

Neonatal infections

The newborn has a high susceptibility to infections, especially newborn weighing less than 2000g or infants with other pathology admitted to intensive care.Newborns with low weight increased susceptibility to infection presents as all components of the immune system is poor compared to infants or adults, and severity of these defects increases as gestational age is lower.In sections of newborn babies to term care, their care must be done in a short period of hospitalization under 72 hours and just under 24 hours care in the current era. Therefore, the newborn will seldom Term infections during hospitalization, less than 1% of cases, and they may not be manifest at discharge, their subsequent monitoring is difficult.
Infections are maternal-fetal infections occurring in newborns under 48 hours of life.Transmission is: transplacental, intrauterine infection, TORCH syndrome, during labor and perinatal infection and infection-delivrarii intrapartum.
Nosocomial infections or hospital infections, is considered infections that occur in newborn than 3 days old. These infections can occur from mother to flora and hospital equipment and carers.Early onset infections are sometimes even at birth, most commonly less than 3 days.The mode of transmission can be during labor and birth by passing through pelvigenitala chain.
Risk factors are:- Corioamniotita;- Membranes ruptured more than 18 hours;- Maternal fever over 38 ° C;- Vaginal colonization with group B streptococcal or BGN;- Group B streptococcal bacteriuria;- Urogenital infections;- Premature birth;- Multiple pregnancies.
Perinatal infections can be localized or generalized. Approximately 15% of pneumonia and systemic infections are transmitted from mother and increased neonatal mortality associated with.
In terms of causative germs most frequently involved are Streptococcus group B, E. Colli, Haemophilus influenzae.Germs are often involved: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species, Serratia marcescens, streptococcus group A;Are incriminated in the etiology of disease and anaerobic microorganisms, viruses, Herpes simplex, varicella, enteroviruses (coxackie), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis A rarely (HAV).

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