Thursday, November 15, 2012

Smoking and pregnancy

Smoking and pregnancy

Despite the efforts of researchers and health professionals, smoking during pregnancy remains a public health problem. Between 20 and 30% of women smoke during pregnancy, while others reduce the number of cigarettes consumed daily.
Smoking and pregnancy
Smoking during pregnancy train serious risks for both the woman and the fetus. It was shown that smoking increases the risk of pregnancy complications and cause serious problems such as stillbirth birth to, miscarriage, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, placenta praevia and sudden infant death. Smoking trains and other effects on the mother, is associated with early menopause and infertility.

Quitting smoking during pregnancy has many benefits for women's health, and reducing the fetus and cause health problems in children whose mothers smoke are exposed.
Smoking and pregnancy
During pregnancy, smoking risks to the embryo and fetus are directly related to inhalation by the mother of the two main toxic substances in cigarette smoke, carbon monoxide and nicotine.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic effect on pregnancy because:
- Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO than maternal hemoglobin, bringing about a decrease in fetal oxygenation
- Reduction of fetal blood oxygenation explained by CO toxicity of this substance, which is the origin of many negative effects of tobacco on carrying pregnancy and embryo development and fetal
Smoking and pregnancy
Nicotine has vasoconstrictive effects on uterine and placental blood flow. Concentration of nicotine is 15% higher in the fetal circulation and amniotic fluid.
Tobacco reduces the bioavailability of vitamin B12, vitamin C, folic acid and zinc.

These negative effects of CO and nicotine explains that tobacco consumption before and during pregnancy is a risk factor for many fertility problems in developing pregnancy, fetal growth and development and child development after birth.

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